How is Othello's race a factor in the play?
Othello ascends to the rank of the Venetian military, a city - much like Elizabethan England when the play was written - rife with racism. A general in the army, Othello holds a distinguished place in the Duke's court due to his victories in battle, but not an equal one. He suffers barbs and preconceived notions, yet Othello is esteemed and wins the love of the daughter of a nobleman. However, Brabantio is enraged by Othello's marriage to Desdemona and claims Othello used magic to compel her to run to his "sooty bosom". Race is a factor in the tragedy both in those who seek to destroy Othello, and the victims of the schemes - Othello and Desdemona. Perhaps the most pernicious form of race as an instrument of division is Othello's own view of himself as an outsider, which makes him more susceptible to Iago's plan.
How does Shakespeare's use of language reveal character?
Often Shakespeare uses verse lines written in iambic pentameter to illustrate nobility. It is illustrative of Iago's duplicitous nature that he tends to speak in verse when he is with Othello and in prose for his soliloquies. One way in which Iago is a master in manipulation is his tendency to use Othello's own words to disguise his active role of instigator and make it seem that any dark thought came not from him but Othello's own mind. Othello's speech is very sophisticated at the beginning of the play, and in his soliloquy at the close of Act V, but when he is consumed with jealous rage, his eloquence falters. Shakespeare uses dialogue to convey the innerworkings of his characters.
Othello is often called a tragic hero. Discuss his heroic qualities as well as his flaws which lead to his demise.
At the beginning of the play Othello is presented as an honorable man of noble stature and high position. In the end it is his misguided attempt to maintain that honor which brings about his, and Desdemona's, demise. However, Othello is not simply the victim of a plot. Iago is able to engineer Othello's downfall in part because of Othello's own insecurities. His pride blinds him to his weaknesses, and he puts his faith in Iago over the word of his love, Desdemona. Othello is obsessed with his reputation, and ends up killing his wife to save face. Only to a flawed man would murder seem like a solution to a problem of reputation. Othello is spurred on by lies and misrepresentations, but he brings about his own undoing.
What motives, stated and implied does Iago have for taking revenge on Othello?
Iago's stated reason for taking revenge on Othello is that he has been passed over for Cassio's post. But is this enough for him to "hate the Moor"? It is clear that he is jealous of Othello's ascension in the court and successful wooing of Desdemona. Othello's race and status as an outsider also seems to fuel this rage, as well as the rumor that Othello has slept with Iago's wife, Emilia. None of these motivations, however, seem to add up to inspire the violence that unfolds. Iago remains one of the most purely evil of Shakespeare's villains.
Discuss how loyalty is presented as a positive and a negative quality throughout the play.
Othello's lack of loyalty is what incites Iago's plan for revenge. Iago's ability to fool Othello that he is loyal while secretly plotting his demise is what makes his revenge effective. It is Othello's belief in Desdemona's lack of loyalty that seals their fates. In these ways loyalty, when misconstrued, can be dangerous. However Desdemona's loyalty to Othello even in her death and Othello's loyalty to her once his mistake is revealed are seen as ennobling aspects of their characters.
Compare and contrast the jealousy of Othello to that of Iago.
One major theme in Othello is revenge - Iago's revenge on Othello and Othello's revenge on Desdemona. They both believe death will bring justice. Iago's revenge is cooler, plotted out over time where Othello's is an act of heartbroken passion. Iago wears his lack of morals as a badge of honor where it is Othello's moral code that leads to his tragic end.
Although Othello is the title character in what way is Iago the main character?
Often in Shakespeare's plays such as Hamlet or King Lear, the title character is the main character and protagonist. In Othello this is not the case. Iago has almost 20% more lines than Othello, and has more asides with the audience. While it is Othello's decisions and actions that provide the dramatic structure for the play, it is Iago who sets in motion those decisions and spurs him to action. Othello is the tragic figure of the play, along with Desdemona, and it his characteristics that lend itself to most of the themes - jealousy, race, trust. However, Iago is the character who drives the plot.
How does Desdemona's dying assertion that she killed herself effect how you see her character?
From a modern feminist viewpoint Desdemona may be judged harshly for answering Emilia, when she asked who has mortally attacked her, "nobody; I myself. Farewell." Furthermore, she seemed resigned to her fate at the hands of her husband. While contemporary audiences may interpret these actions as unfathomable, they highlight the goodness of her character. Desdemona is described by others in the play with words that symbolize goodness - light, white, fair, delicate, alabaster. By the end of the play, Desdemona begins to symbolize goodness itself, so her reaction to her murder becomes another element in Othello's tragic end. Desdemona still loves Othello, though he is mistaken, and she goes to her death professing her husband's reputation. A modern audience may wish for a response that is less melodramatic, but that is not the world that Shakespeare has created in this play.
In what ways do Othello's suicide strengthen or undermine his heroism?
Though suicide is not usually the chosen end for a heroic figure, it is Othello's only escape from the crimes he has committed. Though the victim of Iago's trickery, Othello is still the author of his own demise. For Desdemona's death to be answered by anything less than his own would have felt false.
Describe how Othello's pride leads to his fall.
At the beginning of the play Othello is proud of himself and his achievements, but when Iago looks to punish Othello for his perceived slight, it is his pride that he preys upon. The belief that Desdemona has tainted his honor ignites Othello's rage, but it is his pride that blinds him to the fact that the evidence of her acts are lies invented not by a loyal friend but an enemy bent on his destruction.
Quotes & Possible Essay Questions for Othello
1. "I am not what I am." (Iago 1.1)
2. "You area senator." (Iago 1.1)
3. "Keep up your bright swords, for the dew will rust them." (Othello 1.2)
4. "Were it my cue to fight, I should have known it / Without a prompter." (Othello 1.2)
5. "I saw Othellos visage in his mind." (Desdemona 1.3)
6. "If virtue no delighted beauty lack, / Your son-in-law is far more fair than black." (Duke 1.3)
7. "Look to her, Moor, if thou hast eyes to see: / She has deceived her father, and may thee." (Brabantio 1.3)
8. "My life upon her faith!" (Othello 1.3)
9. "I have looked upon the world for four times seven years, and since I could distinguish betwixt a benefit and an injury, I never found man that knew how to love himself." (Iago 1.3)
10. "Virtue? a fig! Tis in ourselves that we are thus, or thus." (Iago 1.3)
11. "Who steals my purse steals trash." (Iago 3.3)
12. "O, beware, my lord, of jealousy! / It is the green-eyed monster, which doth mock/ The meat it feeds on." (Iago 3.3)
13. "For she had eyes, and chose me." (Othello 3.3)
14. "Farewell! Othellos occupations gone!" (Othello 3.3)
15. "Nobody,I myself." (Desdemona 5.2)
16. "Thou hast not half that powr to do me harm / As I have to be hurt." (Emilia 5.2)
17. "O gull! O dolt! / As ignorant as dirt!" (Emilia 5.2)
18. "An honourable murderer, if you will; / For naught I did in hate, but all in honor." (Othello 5.2)
19. "Demand me nothing. What you know, you know." (Iago 5.2)
20. "Then must you speak / Of one that loved not wisely, but too well; / Of one not easily jealous, but, being wrought, / Perplexed in the extreme." (Othello 5.2)
21. "This did I fear, but thought he had no weapon; / For he was great of heart." (Cassio 5.2)
Possible Essay Questions:
1. Compare and contrast any two film versions of the play.
2. Compare and contrast at least three film versions of the same characterOthello, Iago, Desdemona, etc.
3. Discuss the reasons for Iagos actions. How far ahead does he plan and how much harm did he intend?
4. Discuss various characters in the play as outsiders.
5. Does Desdemona bear any of the responsibility for the tragedy? Why or why not?
6. Does Othello fall as the result of a tragic flaw? Why or why not?
7. Should Othello be played by a black or white actor? Does it matter?
8. Discuss film adaptations of Shakespeare. Can they compete with stage versions? Are stage versions closer to the Shakespearean original?
9. Discuss Othello as villain and hero, paying special attention to his final speech.
10. Is Othello a noble moor or a dangerous savage? (You might want to give examples from a particular film to support your point of view.)
11. Discuss prejudice in Othello. What points do you think Shakespeare was attempting to make?
12. Why does Othello marry Desdemona? Why does she marry him? Was the destruction of the marriage inevitable or was Iagos malice necessary?