This depends on what type of work you are writing, how you are using the borrowed material, and the expectations of your instructor.
First, you have to think about how you want to identify your sources. If your sources are very important to your ideas, you should mention the author and work in a sentence that introduces your citation. If, however, you are only citing the source to make a minor point, you may consider using parenthetical references, footnotes, or endnotes.
There are also different forms of citation for different disciplines. For example, when you cite sources in a psychology paper you would probably use a different form of citation than you might in a paper for an English class.
Finally, you should always consult your instructor to determine the form of citation appropriate for your paper. You can save a lot of time and energy simply by asking "How should I cite my sources," or "What style of citation should I use?" before you begin writing.
In the following sections, we will take you step-by-step through some general guidelines for citing sources.
Identifying Sources in the Body of Your Paper
The first time you cite a source, it is almost always a good idea to mention its author(s), title, and genre (book, article, or web page, etc.). If the source is central to your work, you may want to introduce it in a separate sentence or two, summarizing its importance and main ideas. But often you can just tag this information onto the beginning or end of a sentence. For example, the following sentence puts information about the author and work before the quotation:
Milan Kundera, in his book The Art of the Novel, suggests that “if the novel should really disappear, it will do so not because it has exhausted its powers but because it exists in a world grown alien to it.”
You may also want to describe the author(s) if they are not famous, or if you have reason to believe your reader does not know them. You should say whether they are economic analysts, artists, physicists, etc. If you do not know anything about the author, and cannot find any information, it is best to say where you found the source and why you believe it is credible and worth citing. For example,
In an essay presented at an Asian Studies conference held at Duke University, Sheldon Geron analyzes the relation of state, labor-unions, and small businesses in Japan between 1950s and 1980s.
If you have already introduced the author and work from which you are citing, and you are obviously referring to the same work, you probably don't need to mention them again. However, if you have cited other sources and then go back to one you had cited earlier, it is a good idea to mention at least the author's name again (and the work if you have referred to more than one by this author) to avoid confusion.
What is Quoting?
Taking the exact words from an original source is called quoting. You should quote material when you believe the way the original author expresses an idea is the most effective means of communicating the point you want to make. If you want to borrow an idea from an author, but do not need his or her exact words, you should try paraphrasing instead of quoting.
How Often Should I Quote?
Most of the time, paraphrasing and summarizing your sources is sufficient (but remember that you still have to cite them!). If you think it’s important to quote something, an excellent rule of thumb is that for every line you quote, you should have at least two lines analyzing it.
How Do I Incorporate Quotations in My Paper?
Most of the time, you can just identify a source and quote from it, as in the first example above. Sometimes, however, you will need to modify the words or format of the quotation in order to fit in your paper. Whenever you change the original words of your source, you must indicate that you have done so. Otherwise, you would be claiming the original author used words that he or she did not use. But be careful not to change too many words! You could accidentally change the meaning of the quotation and falsely claim the author said something they did not.
For example, let's say you want to quote from the following passage in an essay called "United Shareholders of America," by Jacob Weisberg:
The citizen-investor serves his fellow citizens badly by his inclination to withdraw from the community. He tends to serve himself badly as well. He does so by focusing his pursuit of happiness on something that very seldom makes people happy in the way they expect it to.
When you quote, you generally want to be as concise as possible. Keep only the material that is strictly relevant to your own ideas. So here you would not want to quote the middle sentence, since it is repeated again in the more informative last sentence. However, just skipping it would not work -- the final sentence would not make sense without it. So, you have to change the wording a little bit. In order to do so, you will need to use some editing symbols. Your quotation might end up looking like this:
In his essay, “United Shareholders of America,” Jacob Weisberg insists that “The citizen-investor serves his fellow citizens badly by his inclination to withdraw from the community. He tends to serve himself badly... by focusing his pursuit of happiness on something that very seldom makes people happy in the way they expect it to.”
“He tends to serve himself badly...by focusing his pursuit of happiness on [money].”
The brackets around the word [money] indicate that you have substituted that word for other words the author used. To make a substitution this important, however, you had better be sure that [money] is what the final phrase meant -- if the author intentionally left it ambiguous, you would be significantly altering his meaning. That would make you guilty of fraudulent attribution. In this case, however, the paragraph following the one quoted explains that the author is referring to money, so it is okay.
As a general rule, it is okay to make minor grammatical and stylistic changes to make the quoted material fit in your paper, but it is not okay to significantly alter the structure of the material or its content.
Quoting within Quotes
When you have "embedded quotes," or quotations within quotations, you should switch from the normal quotation marks ("") to single quotation marks ('') to show the difference. For example, if an original passage by John Archer reads:
The Mountain Coyote has been described as a “wily” and “single-minded” predator by zoologist Lma Warner.
your quotation might look like this:
As John Archer explains, “The Mountain Coyote has been described as a 'wily' and 'single-minded' predator by zoologist Lma Warner.”
How Do I Include Long Quotes in My Paper?
The exact formatting requirements for long quotations differ depending on the citation style. In general, however, if you are quoting more than 3 lines of material, you should do the following:
- change the font to one noticeably smaller (in a document that is mostly 12 point font, you should use a 10 point font, for example)
- double indent the quotation -- that means adjusting the left and right margins so that they are about one inch smaller than the main body of your paper
- if you have this option in your word-processor, "left-justify" the text. That means make it so that each line begins in the same place, creating a straight line on the left side of the quotation, while the right side is jagged
- do NOT use quotation marks for the entire quotation -- the graphic changes you have made already (changing the font, double indenting, etc.) are enough to indicate that the material is quoted. For quotations within that quotation, use normal quotation marks, not single ones
- you might want to skip 1.5 times the line-spacing you are using in the document before you begin the quotation and after it. This is optional and depends on the style preferred by your instructor
For example, a properly-formatted long quotation in a document might look like this:
Akutagawa complicates the picture of picture of himself as mere “reader on the verge of writing his own text,” by having his narrated persona actually finish authoring the work in wich he appears. In the forty-ninth segment of the text, entitled “A Stuffed Swan,” he writes:Using all of his remaining strength, he tried to write his autobiography. Yet it was not an easy task for him. This was due to his still lingering sense of pride and skepticism... After finishing “A Fool's Life,” he accidentally discovered a suffered swan in a used goods store. Although it stood with its head raised, even its yellowed wings had been eaten by insects. He thought of his entire life and felt tears and cruel laughter welling up inside. All that remained for him was madness or suicide.With this gesture Akutagawa ironizes the impossibility of truly writing the self by emphasizing the inevitable split that must occur between writing and written “self,” the Akutagawa still writing “A Fool's Life” cannot possibly be identical with the narrated persona which has finished the work.
What's a Bibliography?
A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have used in the process of researching your work. In general, a bibliography should include:
- the authors' names
- the titles of the works
- the names and locations of the companies that published your copies of the sources
- the dates your copies were published
- the page numbers of your sources (if they are part of multi-source volumes)
OK, So What's an Annotated Bibliography?
An annotated bibliography is the same as a bibliography with one important difference: in an annotated bibliography, the bibliographic information is followed by a brief description of the content, quality, and usefulness of the source.
What Are Footnotes?
Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page. They cite references or comment on a designated part of the text above it. For example, say you want to add an interesting comment to a sentence you have written, but the comment is not directly related to the argument of your paragraph. In this case, you could add the symbol for a footnote. Then, at the bottom of the page you could reprint the symbol and insert your comment. Here is an example:
This is an illustration of a footnote.1 The number “1” at the end of the previous sentence corresponds with the note below. See how it fits in the body of the text?
1 At the bottom of the page you can insert your comments about the sentence preceding the footnote.
When your reader comes across the footnote in the main text of your paper, he or she could look down at your comments right away, or else continue reading the paragraph and read your comments at the end. Because this makes it convenient for your reader, most citation styles require that you use either footnotes or endnotes in your paper. Some, however, allow you to make parenthetical references (author, date) in the body of your work. See our section on citation styles for more information.
Footnotes are not just for interesting comments, however. Sometimes they simply refer to relevant sources -- they let your reader know where certain material came from or where they can look for other sources on the subject. To decide whether you should cite your sources in footnotes or in the body of your paper, you should ask your instructor or see our section on citation styles.
Where Does the Little Footnote Mark Go?
Whenever possible, put the footnote at the end of a sentence, immediately following the period or whatever punctuation mark completes that sentence. Skip two spaces after the footnote before you begin the next sentence. If you must include the footnote in the middle of a sentence for the sake of clarity, or because the sentence has more than one footnote (try to avoid this!), try to put it at the end of the most relevant phrase, after a comma or other punctuation mark. Otherwise, put it right at the end of the most relevant word. If the footnote is not at the end of a sentence, skip only one space after it.
What's the Difference between Footnotes and Endnotes?
The only real difference is placement -- footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page, while endnotes all appear at the end of your document. If you want your reader to read your notes right away, footnotes are more likely to get your reader's attention. Endnotes, on the other hand, are less intrusive and will not interrupt the flow of your paper.
If I Cite Sources in the Footnotes (or Endnotes), How's that Different from a Bibliography?
Sometimes you may be asked to include these -- especially if you have used a parenthetical style of citation. A "works cited" page is a list of all the works from which you have borrowed material. Your reader may find this more convenient than footnotes or endnotes because he or she will not have to wade through all of the comments and other information in order to see the sources from which you drew your material. A "works consulted" page is a complement to a "works cited" page, listing all of the works you used, whether they were useful or not.
Isn't a "Works Consulted" Page the Same as a "Bibliography," Then?
Well, yes. The title is different because "works consulted" pages are meant to complement "works cited" pages, and bibliographies may list other relevant sources in addition to those mentioned in footnotes or endnotes. Choosing to title your bibliography "Works Consulted" or "Selected Bibliography" may help specify the relevance of the sources listed.
For more information on documenting sources, see Purdue University's Online Writing Lab.
"Spongebob Squarepants" is one of those rare children's cartoons that is loved equally by kids and adults alike. This is partly because of its great sense of humor, but also because of its willingness to explore complex themes that are more mature than its silly animated characters would suggest.
Here are my top five picks for the deepest and most insightful episodes of Spongebob.
Is there any student out there who can’t relate to this episode?
"Procrastination" has always been remembered as one of the most intense and frightening Spongebob episodes, but it’s also one of the truest. What’s interesting is that this episode, while it may be a little dramatic, is actually a highly-realistic portrayal of procrastination and its effects on people.
In the beginning, Spongebob is excited to write his 800-word essay; boating is a topic that he’s fairly passionate about, after all. But as the hours pass and Spongebob avoids the task again and again, we see a simple essay turn into a source of pure existential horror.
All of the usual symptoms are there: sleep deprivation, delusions, a fascination with the mundane, spontaneous house fires… the list goes on. Any student can tell you how real Spongebob’s struggles are here.
And in the end, Spongebob does the same thing that every real-world student does: complete the entire essay within a few minutes of the deadline, and then realize that the work was not all that difficult to begin with.
Plain and simple, "Hooky" is a story about the modern war on drugs. You have your two young protagonists, naive and rebellious, and your concerned parental figures, protective but misguided. And of course you have the hooks, the physical embodiments of dangerous, addictive pleasure.
But where most children’s shows would stop there, content with teaching a simple lesson about listening to mom and dad, Spongebob Squarepants goes a step further. Despite the fact that Spongebob and Patrick ride the hooks countless times during the episode, neither of them is ever hauled to the surface, served with a side of mayonnaise, or (even worse!) sold in a tacky seaside gift shop.
In fact, when Spongebob finally does find himself hooked, it is at the hands of Mr. Krabs himself! Mr. Krabs, who has been warning the boys about the hooks all along, is the only one to actually reel Spongebob in. By the end of the episode, the worst thing that has happened to Spongebob is Mr. Krabs’ embarrassing punishment.
The true genius of "Hooky" lies in this nuanced perspective. Yes, the hooks are a real and dangerous threat; Patrick even ends up in a can of tuna at the very end of the episode. But the fact is that Mr. Krabs’ severe stance on hooks caused Spongebob more trouble than the hooks ever did themselves.
3. "Squid’s Day Off"
One of the major themes of Spongebob Squarepants is menial labor and its effects on those who must perform it for a living. Nowhere is this theme more prominent than in "Squid’s Day Off".
The episode begins with Mr. Krabs (the quintessential greedy boss) injuring himself in an attempt to save a nickel from going down the drain. This leaves Squidward (the frustrated employee) in charge for the day.
I love the way this episode emphasizes the differences between Spongebob and Squidward. On one hand, Spongebob is the perfect employee from Mr. Krabs’ perspective: he is (apparently) very skilled, frighteningly obedient and ridiculously passionate about his job. Squidward on the other hand, is Mr. Krabs’ worst nightmare: he is lazy, contemptuous and demands respect from his boss.
But Spongebob comes out on top time and time again. His vivacious personality and optimistic spirit enable him to savor every moment of his minimum-wage drudgery. Instead of lamenting that Squidward has placed the entire workload on him, Spongebob rejoices because he gets to wear two hats for the day instead of one.
Squidward, of course, is miserable even when he is in charge of things. Even when he tries to relax at home, he is tormented by the possibility that Spongebob will destroy the Krusty Krab if left to his own devices. Although he outwardly hates Mr. Krabs and his restaurant, he cannot help but hold its success above his own personal desires. Ultimately Squidward’s own laziness drives him insane, which suggests that he will never truly escape the trappings of his job at the cash register.
"Pickles" is a beautiful and universal story about artistic redemption and the fragility of human confidence. No, really, it is.
This episode shows us a darker and more sensitive side to Spongebob when he forgets to add pickles to a krabby patty. His mistake leads him to believe that he has lost his greatest talent: the ability to make a krabby patty. This is significant because, to Spongebob, a krabby patty is more than just a sandwich, it is the very source of his confidence. Spongebob does not see himself as a fry cook, but as an artist. The grill is his canvas and the krabby patty is his greatest work of art.
From this perspective, it is easy to see why those two pickles are such a problem. In the real world, little things like pickles really are enough to undermine a person’s confidence: they are that one blemish, that one flaw that makes us question everything else we’ve done. When Spongebob tumbles into a downward spiral of anxiety and self-loathing, he is all of us. He is everybody who has ever made a mistake and thought about it for longer than they should.
But Spongebob also offers us a message of hope and redemption. Eventually, he finds his confidence again. After many nights of intense concentration, Spongebob comes to realize that he can put a krabby patty together. In the end, we see that it was Spongebob’s own self-doubt (and Bubblebass’ trickery) that was holding him back all along.
Ah, yes. The time travel episode. This one offers some of the show’s deepest insights about relationships and the universe, and is also my personal favorite.
Squidward is tired of Spongebob and Patrick constantly asking him to go jellyfishing, so he decides to seek refuge in the Krusty Krab’s refrigerator. It sounds a little extreme, but we’ve all been there. We’ve all had that annoying friend that just won’t leave us alone.
Unfortunately, Spongebob and Patrick are not smart enough to find Squidward’s hiding place. Even worse is that nobody else cares enough about Squidward to come looking for him. This is kind of depressing, and it foreshadows the main theme of the episode: Spongebob and Patrick are Squidward’s best and only friends.
Over the course of the episode, Squidward travels to the distant future, the ancient past, and to a strange and unsettling purgatory in which time no longer seems to exist. It is here that Squidward finally finds the thing that he supposedly desires most: solitude.
Of course, it is this intense solitude that changes Squidward’s mind in the end. He realizes that isolation is nothing to be desired and that Spongebob and Patrick’s company is infinitely better than nothing.
Throughout the episode, Squidward encounters various iterations of his two friends at different points in time. The constant theme here is that Spongebob and Patrick are always there and always willing to be Squidward’s friends. In the end, Squidward is forced to confront one of the great truths of human experience: the people who bother us the most are also the ones who make us feel loved.